Efficacy and effectiveness of GARDASIL are relevant to GARDASIL 9 since the vaccines are manufactured similarly and contain four of the same HPV L1 VLPs.
Individuals 16 through 26 Years of Age
Efficacy of GARDASIL was assessed in five AAHS-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trials evaluating 24,596 individuals 16 through 26 years of age (20,541 girls and women and 4,055 boys and men). The results of these trials are shown in Table 6 below.
|Disease Endpoints||GARDASIL||AAHS Control||% Efficacy (95% CI)|
|N||Number of cases||N||Number of cases|
|N=Number of individuals with at least one follow-up visit after Month 7|
|Note 1: Point estimates and confidence intervals are adjusted for person-time of follow-up.|
|Note 2: Table 6 does not include cases due to HPV types not covered by the vaccine.|
|AAHS = Amorphous Aluminum Hydroxyphosphate Sulfate, CIN = Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia, VIN = Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia, VaIN=Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia, PIN=Penile Intraepithelial Neoplasia, AIN=Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia, AIS=Adenocarcinoma In Situ|
|16- through 26-Year-Old Girls and Women †|
|HPV 16- or 18-related CIN 2/3 or AIS||8493||2||8464||112||98.2 (93.5, 99.8)|
|HPV 16- or 18-related VIN 2/3||7772||0||7744||10||100.0 (55.5, 100.0)|
|HPV 16- or 18-related VaIN 2/3||7772||0||7744||9||100.0 (49.5, 100.0)|
|HPV 6-, 11-, 16-, or 18-related CIN (CIN 1, CIN 2/3) or AIS||7864||9||7865||225||96.0 (92.3, 98.2)|
|HPV 6-, 11-, 16-, or 18-related Genital Warts||7900||2||7902||193||99.0 (96.2, 99.9)|
|HPV 6- and 11-related Genital Warts||6932||2||6856||189||99.0 (96.2, 99.9)|
|16- through 26-Year-Old Boys and Men|
|External Genital Lesions HPV 6-, 11-, 16-, or 18-related|
|External Genital Lesions||1394||3||1404||32||90.6 (70.1, 98.2)|
|Condyloma||1394||3||1404||28||89.3 (65.3, 97.9)|
|PIN 1/2/3||1394||0||1404||4||100.0 (-52.1, 100.0)|
|HPV 6-, 11-, 16-, or 18-related Endpoint|
|AIN 1/2/3||194||5||208||24||77.5 (39.6, 93.3)|
|AIN 2/3||194||3||208||13||74.9 (8.8, 95.4)|
|AIN 1Condyloma AcuminatumNon-acuminate||194194194||404||208208208||16611||73.0 (16.3, 93.4)100.0 (8.2, 100.0)60.4 (-33.5, 90.8)|
In an extension study in females 16 through 26 years of age at enrollment, prophylactic efficacy of GARDASIL through Month 60 against overall cervical and genital disease related to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 was 100% (95% CI: 12.3%, 100%) compared to AAHS control.
An extension study in girls and women 16 through 23 years of age used national healthcare registries in Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden to monitor endpoint cases of HPV 6-, 11-, 16-, or 18-related CIN (any grade), AIS, cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, or vaginal cancer among 2,650 girls and women 16 through 23 years of age at enrollment who were randomized to vaccination with GARDASIL. An interim analysis of the per-protocol effectiveness population included 1,902 subjects who completed the GARDASIL vaccination series within one year, were naïve to the relevant HPV type through 1 month post-dose 3, had no protocol violations, and had follow-up data available. The median follow-up from the first dose of vaccine was 6.7 years with a range of 2.8 to 8.4 years. At the time of interim analysis, no cases of HPV 6-, 11-, 16-, or 18-related CIN (any grade), AIS, cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, or vaginal cancer were observed over a total of 5,765 person-years at risk.
Girls and Boys 9 through 15 Years of Age
An extension study of 614 girls and 565 boys 9 through 15 years of age at enrollment who were randomized to vaccination with GARDASIL actively followed subjects for endpoint cases of HPV 6-, 11-, 16-, or 18-related persistent infection, CIN (any grade), AIS, VIN, VaIN, cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, vaginal cancer, and external genital lesions from the initiation of sexual activity or age 16 onwards. An interim analysis of the per-protocol effectiveness population included 246 girls and 168 boys who completed the GARDASIL vaccination series within one year, were seronegative to the relevant HPV type at initiation of the vaccination series, and had not initiated sexual activity prior to receiving the third dose of GARDASIL. The median follow-up from the first dose of vaccine was 7.2 years with a range of 0.5 to 8.5 years. At the time of interim analysis, no cases of persistent infection of at least 12 months’ duration and no cases of HPV 6-, 11-, 16-, or 18-related CIN (any grade), AIS, VIN, VaIN, cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, vaginal cancer, or external genital lesions were observed over a total 1,105 person-years at risk. There were 4 cases of HPV 6-, 11-, 16-, or 18-related persistent infection of at least 6 months’ duration, including 3 cases related to HPV 16 and 1 case related to HPV 6, none of which persisted to 12 months’ duration.
Individuals 27 through 45 Years of Age
A clinical trial evaluated efficacy of GARDASIL in 3,253 women 27 through 45 years of age, based on a combined endpoint of HPV 6-, 11-, 16- or 18-related persistent infection, genital warts, vulvar and vaginal dysplastic lesions of any grade, CIN of any grade, AIS, and cervical cancer. These women were randomized 1:1 to receive either GARDASIL or AAHS control. The clinical trial was conducted in two phases: a base study and a long-term study extension. The per-protocol efficacy (PPE) population received all three vaccinations within one year of enrollment, did not have major deviations from the study protocol, were naïve (PCR negative and seronegative) to the relevant HPV type(s) (Types 6, 11, 16 and 18) prior to dose 1 and remained PCR negative to the relevant HPV type(s) through one month post-dose 3 (Month 7).
In the base study (median duration of follow-up of 3.5 years post-dose 3), the efficacy of GARDASIL against the combined incidence of HPV 6-, 11-, 16-, and 18-related persistent infection, genital warts, VIN, VaIN, vulvar cancer, vaginal cancer, cervical dysplasia (any grade CIN), AIS and cervical cancer in the PPE population was 87.7% (95% CI: 75.4%, 94.6%). The efficacy estimate for the combined endpoint was driven primarily by prevention of persistent infection. The efficacy of GARDASIL against the combined incidence of HPV 6-, 11-, 16-, and 18-related genital warts or cervical dysplasia was 95.0% (95% CI: 68.7%, 99.9%) in the PPE population. While no statistically significant efficacy was demonstrated for GARDASIL in the base study for prevention of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 (CIN 2/3), adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) or cervical cancer related to HPV types 16 and 18, there was 1 case of CIN 2/3 observed in the GARDASIL group and 5 cases in the placebo group. The CIN 2 case in the GARDASIL group tested positive by PCR for HPV 16 and HPV 51.
In the long-term extension of this study, subjects from Colombia (n=600) randomized to the GARDASIL group in the base study were monitored for HPV 6-, 11-, 16-, and 18-related genital warts or cervical dysplasia. The median follow-up post-dose 3 was 8.9 years with a range of 0.1 to 10.1 years over a total of 3,518 person-years. During the long-term extension phase, no cases of HPV 6-, 11-, 16-, or 18-related CIN (any grade) or genital warts were observed in the PPE population.
Effectiveness of GARDASIL in men 27 through 45 years of age is inferred from efficacy data in women 27 through 45 years of age as described above and supported by immunogenicity data from a clinical trial in which 150 men, 27 through 45 years of age, received a 3-dose regimen of GARDASIL (0, 2, 6 months). A cross-study analysis of per-protocol immunogenicity populations compared Month 7 anti-HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 GMTs of these 27- through 45-year-old men (Study A) to those of 16- through 26-year old boys and men (Study B) in whom efficacy of GARDASIL had been established (see Table 6). GMT ratios (Study A/Study B) for HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 were 0.82 (95%CI: 0.65, 1.03), 0.79 (95%CI: 0.66, 0.93), 0.91 (95%CI: 0.72, 1.13), and 0.74 (95%CI: 0.59, 0.92), respectively.
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