Prevnar 13, comprised of pneumococcal polysaccharides conjugated to a carrier protein (CRM197 ), elicits a T-cell dependent immune response. Protein carrier-specific T-cells provide the signals needed for maturation of the B-cell response.
Nonclinical and clinical data support opsonophagocytic activity, as measured by opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) antibody assay, as a contributor to protection against pneumococcal disease. The OPA antibody assay provides an in vitro measurement of the ability of serum antibodies to eliminate pneumococci by promoting complement-mediated phagocytosis and is believed to reflect relevant in vivo mechanisms of protection against pneumococcal disease. OPA antibody titers are expressed as the reciprocal of the highest serum dilution that reduces survival of the pneumococci by at least 50%.
In infants that have received Prevnar 13, opsonophagocytic activity correlates well with serotype specific anti-capsular polysaccharide IgG levels as measured by ELISA. A serum anti-capsular polysaccharide antibody concentration of 0.35 µg/mL as measured by ELISA one month after the third dose as a single antibody reference concentration was used to estimate the effectiveness of Prevnar 13 against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in infants and children. The assay used for this determination is a standardized ELISA involving pre-absorption of the test sera with pneumococcal C-polysaccharide and serotype 22F polysaccharide to reduce non-specific background reactivity. The single antibody reference value was based on pooled efficacy estimates from three placebo-controlled IPD efficacy trials with either Prevnar or the investigational 9-valent CRM197 conjugate pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. This reference concentration is only applicable on a population basis and cannot be used to predict protection against IPD on an individual basis. Functional antibodies elicited by the vaccine (as measured by a dribble opsonophagocytic activity [dOPA] antibody assay) were also evaluated in infants.
In adults, an antipolysaccharide binding antibody IgG level to predict protection against invasive pneumococcal disease or non-bacteremic pneumonia has not been defined. Noninferiority trials for Prevnar 13 were designed to show that functional OPA antibody responses (as measured by a microcolony OPA [mcOPA] antibody assay) for the Prevnar 13 serotypes are noninferior and for some serotypes superior to the common serotypes in the currently licensed pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). OPA antibody titers measured in the mcOPA antibody assay cannot be compared directly to titers measured in the dOPA antibody assay.
Prevnar 13 has not been evaluated for the potential to cause carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, or impairment of male fertility. In a study in rabbits, no vaccine-related effects were found regarding reproductive performance including female fertility [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Prevnar Efficacy Data
Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD)
Prevnar (Pneumococcal 7-valent Conjugate Vaccine [Diphtheria CRM‘197 Protein]) was licensed in the US for infants and children in 2000, following a randomized, double-blind clinical trial in a multiethnic population at Northern California Kaiser Permanente (NCKP) from October 1995 through August 20, 1998, in which 37,816 infants were randomized to receive either Prevnar or a control vaccine (an investigational meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine [MnCC]) at 2, 4, 6, and 12–15 months of age. In this study, the efficacy of Prevnar against invasive disease due to S. pneumoniae in cases accrued during this period was 100% in both the per-protocol and intent-to-treat analyses (95% confidence interval [CI]: 75.4%, 100% and 81.7%, 100%, respectively). Data accumulated through an extended follow-up period to April 20, 1999, resulted in similar efficacy estimates of 97.4% in the per-protocol analysis and 93.9% in the intent-to-treat analysis (95% CI: 82.7%, 99.9% and 79.6%, 98.5%, respectively).
Acute Otitis Media (AOM)
The efficacy of Prevnar against otitis media was assessed in two clinical trials: a trial in Finnish infants at the National Public Health Institute and the efficacy trial in US infants at Northern California Kaiser Permanente (NCKP).
The Finnish Otitis Media (FinOM) trial was a randomized, double-blind trial in which 1,662 infants were equally randomized to receive either Prevnar or a control vaccine Recombivax HB (Hepatitis B vaccine (Recombinant) [Hep B]) at 2, 4, 6, and 12–15 months of age. In this study, conducted between December 1995 and March 1999, parents of study participants were asked to bring their children to the study clinics if the child had respiratory infections or symptoms suggesting acute otitis media (AOM). If AOM was diagnosed, tympanocentesis was performed, and the middle-ear fluid was cultured. If S. pneumoniae was isolated, serotyping was performed; the primary endpoint was efficacy against AOM episodes caused by vaccine serotypes in the per-protocol population. In the NCKP trial, the efficacy of Prevnar against otitis media was assessed from the beginning of the trial in October 1995 through April 1998. The otitis media analysis included 34,146 infants randomized to receive either Prevnar (N=17,070), or the control vaccine (N=17,076), at 2, 4, 6, and 12–15 months of age. In this trial, no routine tympanocentesis was performed, and no standard definition of otitis media was used by study physicians. The primary otitis media endpoint was efficacy against all otitis media episodes in the per-protocol population.
The vaccine efficacy against AOM episodes due to vaccine serotypes assessed in the Finnish trial, was 57% (95% CI: 44%, 67%) in the per-protocol population and 54% (95% CI: 41%, 64%) in the intent-to-treat population. The vaccine efficacy against AOM episodes due to vaccine-related serotypes (6A, 9N, 18B, 19A, 23A), also assessed in the Finnish trial, was 51% (95% CI: 27, 67) in the per-protocol population and 44% (95% CI: 20, 62) in the intent-to-treat population. There was a nonsignificant increase in AOM episodes caused by serotypes unrelated to the vaccine in the per-protocol population, compared to children who received the control vaccine, suggesting that children who received Prevnar appeared to be at increased risk of otitis media due to pneumococcal serotypes not represented in the vaccine. However, vaccination with Prevnar reduced pneumococcal otitis media episodes overall. In the NCKP trial, in which the endpoint was all otitis media episodes regardless of etiology, vaccine efficacy was 7% (95% CI: 4%, 10%) and 6% (95% CI: 4%, 9%), respectively, in the per-protocol and intent-to-treat analyses. Several other otitis media endpoints were also assessed in the two trials.
Recurrent AOM, defined as 3 episodes in 6 months or 4 episodes in 12 months, was reduced by 9% in both the per-protocol and intent-to-treat populations (95% CI: 3%, 15% in per-protocol and 95% CI: 4%, 14% in intent-to-treat) in the NCKP trial; a similar trend was observed in the Finnish trial. The NCKP trial also demonstrated a 20% reduction (95% CI: 2, 35) in the placement of tympanostomy tubes in the per-protocol population and a 21% reduction (95% CI: 4, 34) in the intent-to-treat population. Data from the NCKP trial accumulated through an extended follow-up period to April 20, 1999, in which a total of 37,866 children were included (18,925 in Prevnar group and 18,941 in MnCC control group), resulted in similar otitis media efficacy estimates for all endpoints.
Prevnar 13 Adult Efficacy Data
The efficacy of Prevnar 13 against vaccine-type (VT) pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and IPD was assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted over ~ 4 years in the Netherlands12 (Study 12). A total of 84,496 subjects 65 years and older received a single dose of either Prevnar 13 or placebo in a 1:1 randomization; 42,240 subjects were vaccinated with Prevnar 13 and 42,256 subjects were vaccinated with placebo.
The primary objective was to demonstrate the efficacy of Prevnar 13 in the prevention of a first episode of confirmed VT-CAP (defined as presence of ≥2 specified clinical criteria; chest X-ray consistent with CAP as determined by a central committee of radiologists; and positive VT-specific Urinary Antigen Detection assay (UAD) or isolation of VT S. pneumoniae from blood or other sterile site). The secondary objectives were to demonstrate the efficacy of Prevnar 13 in the prevention of a first episode of 1) confirmed nonbacteremic/noninvasive (NB/NI) VT-CAP (an episode of VT-CAP for which the blood culture result and any other sterile site culture results were negative for S. pneumoniae) and 2) VT-IPD (the presence of S. pneumoniae in a sterile site).
Surveillance for suspected pneumonia and IPD began immediately after vaccination and continued through identification of a prespecified number of cases. Subjects who had a CAP or IPD episode with symptom onset less than 14 days after vaccination were excluded from all analyses.
The median duration of follow-up per subject was 3.93 years. Prevnar 13 demonstrated statistically significant vaccine efficacy (VE) in preventing first episodes of VT pneumococcal CAP, nonbacteremic/noninvasive (NB/NI) VT pneumococcal CAP, and VT-IPD (Table 15).
|Efficacy Endpoint||Total Number of Episodes||n||n||VE (%)||(95.2% CI)|
|Abbreviations: CAP = community-acquired pneumonia; CI = confidence interval; NB/NI = nonbacteremic/noninvasive; IPD = invasive pneumococcal disease; VE = vaccine efficacy; VT = vaccine-type.|
|Primary endpoint: First case of confirmed VT pneumococcal CAP||139||49||90||45.6||(21.8, 62.5)|
|Secondary endpoint: First episode of confirmed NB/NI VT pneumococcal CAP||93||33||60||45||(14.2, 65.3)|
|Secondary endpoint: First episode of VT-IPD||35||7||28||75||(41.1, 90.9)|
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