The postmarketing safety experience with Prevnar 13 is relevant to Prevnar 20 since the vaccines are manufactured and formulated similarly and contain 13 of the same polysaccharide conjugates. These adverse reactions are included based on one or more of the following factors: severity, frequency of reporting, or strength of evidence for a causal relationship to Prevnar 13 vaccine in adults. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to product exposure. The following adverse reactions have been spontaneously reported during postapproval use of Prevnar 13 and may also be seen in postmarketing experience with Prevnar 20. Reactions reported in the postmarketing experience and which pertain only to pediatric populations are not included in this listing.
- Immune System Disorders: Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reaction, including shock
- Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Angioneurotic edema, Erythema multiforme
- Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Lymphadenopathy localized to the region of the injection site
- General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: Vaccination-site dermatitis, vaccination-site pruritus, vaccination-site urticaria
Receipt of PPSV23 1 to 5 years prior to Prevnar 20 resulted in diminished OPA geometric mean titers (GMTs) to Prevnar 20 compared to OPA GMTs in recipients who received Prevnar 13 at least 6 months previously, and compared to OPA GMTs in recipients who received Prevnar 13 followed by PPSV23, with the last dose of PPSV23 given at least 1 year prior to Prevnar 20 [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
Individuals with impaired immune responsiveness due to the use of immunosuppressive therapy (including irradiation, corticosteroids, antimetabolites, alkylating agents, and cytotoxic agents) may not respond optimally to Prevnar 20.
All pregnancies have a risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the US general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Prevnar 20 in pregnant women. Available data on Prevnar 20 administered to pregnant women are insufficient to inform vaccine-associated risks in pregnancy.
A developmental toxicity study was performed in female rabbits administered Prevnar 20 prior to mating and during gestation. The dose was 0.5 mL at each occasion (a single human dose is 0.5 mL). This study revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to Prevnar 20 (see Data).
In a developmental toxicity study, female rabbits were administered Prevnar 20 by intramuscular injection twice prior to mating (17 days and 4 days prior to mating) and twice during gestation (Gestation Days 10 and 24), 0.5 mL/rabbit/occasion (a single human dose). No adverse effects on pre-weaning development were observed. There were no vaccine-related fetal malformations or variations.
It is not known whether Prevnar 20 is excreted in human milk. Data are not available to assess the effects of Prevnar 20 on the breastfed infant or on milk production/excretion. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Prevnar 20 and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from Prevnar 20 or from the underlying maternal condition. For preventive vaccines, the underlying maternal condition is susceptibility to disease prevented by the vaccine.
The safety and effectiveness of Prevnar 20 in individuals younger than 18 years of age have not been established.
Of the total number of Prevnar 20 recipients 18 years of age and older evaluated for safety in the 3 main clinical trials (N=4263), 26.7% (n=1138) were 65 years of age and older and 1.7% (n=72) were 80 years of age and older [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
Prevnar 20 recipients 70 through 79 years of age and ≥80 years of age had lower OPA GMTs for all pneumococcal serotypes compared to Prevnar 20 recipients 18 through 49 years, 50 through 59, and 60 through 64 years of age [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].
Prevnar 20, Pneumococcal 20-valent Conjugate Vaccine is a sterile suspension of saccharides of the capsular antigens of S. pneumoniae serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 8, 9V, 10A, 11A, 12F, 14, 15B, 18C, 19A, 19F, 22F, 23F, and 33F, individually linked to non-toxic diphtheria CRM197 protein. Each serotype is grown in soy peptone broth. The individual polysaccharides are purified by a series of chemical and physical methods. The polysaccharides are chemically activated and then directly conjugated to the carrier protein CRM197 , to form the glycoconjugate. CRM197 is a non-toxic variant of diphtheria toxin isolated from cultures of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strain C7 (β197) grown in a casamino acids and yeast extract-based medium or in a chemically-defined medium. CRM197 is purified by a series of chemical and physical methods. The individual glycoconjugates are purified by a series of chemical and physical methods and analyzed for saccharide to protein ratios, molecular size, free saccharide, and free protein.
The individual glycoconjugates are compounded to formulate Prevnar 20. Potency of the formulated vaccine is determined by quantification of each of the saccharide antigens and by the saccharide to protein ratios in the individual glycoconjugates. Each 0.5 mL dose of the vaccine is formulated to contain approximately 2.2 μg of each of S. pneumoniae serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 7F, 8, 9V, 10A, 11A, 12F, 14, 15B, 18C, 19A, 19F, 22F, 23F, 33F saccharides, 4.4 μg of 6B saccharides, 51 μg CRM197 carrier protein, 100 μg polysorbate 80, 295 μg succinate buffer, 4.4 mg sodium chloride, and 125 μg aluminum as aluminum phosphate adjuvant.
Protection against pneumococcal disease is conferred mainly by opsonophagocytic killing of S. pneumoniae. Prevnar 20 generates functional antibodies as measured by opsonophagocytic activity (OPA).
The effectiveness of Prevnar 20 was assessed by measuring serotype-specific serum OPA of antibodies at 1-month post vaccination.
An opsonic antibody titer that is predictive of protection against invasive pneumococcal disease or pneumococcal pneumonia has not been established.
Prevnar 20 has not been evaluated for the potential to cause carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, or impairment of male fertility. Vaccination of female rabbits with Prevnar 20 had no effect on female fertility [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Efficacy and effectiveness of Prevnar 13 are relevant to Prevnar 20, since the vaccines are manufactured similarly and contain 13 of the same polysaccharide conjugates.
The efficacy of Prevnar 13 against vaccine-type (VT) pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults [CAPiTA]) conducted over ~4 years in the Netherlands. A total of 84,496 participants 65 years of age and older received a single dose of either Prevnar 13 or placebo in a 1:1 randomization; 42,240 participants were vaccinated with Prevnar 13 and 42,256 participants were vaccinated with placebo. Chronic medical conditions (asthma, diabetes, heart, liver, and/or lung diseases) were reported in 42.3% of study participants at baseline.
The primary objective was to demonstrate the efficacy of Prevnar 13 in the prevention of a first episode of confirmed VT-CAP (defined as presence of ≥2 specified clinical criteria, chest X-ray consistent with CAP as determined by a central committee of radiologists, and positive VT-specific urinary antigen detection assay [UAD] or isolation of VT S. pneumoniae from blood or other sterile site). The secondary objectives were to demonstrate the efficacy of Prevnar 13 in the prevention of a first episode of 1) confirmed nonbacteremic/noninvasive (NB/NI) VT-CAP (an episode of VT-CAP for which the blood culture result and any other sterile site culture results were negative for S. pneumoniae) and 2) VT-IPD (the presence of S. pneumoniae in a sterile site).
Surveillance for suspected pneumonia and IPD began immediately after vaccination and continued through identification of a prespecified number of cases. Participants who had a CAP or IPD episode with symptom onset less than 14 days after vaccination were excluded from all analyses.
The median duration of follow-up per participant was 3.93 years. Prevnar 13 demonstrated statistically significant vaccine efficacy (VE) in preventing first episodes of VT pneumococcal CAP, NB/NI VT pneumococcal CAP, and VT-IPD (see Table 5).
|Efficacy Endpoint||Total Number of Episodes||n||n||VE (%)||(95.2% CI)|
|Abbreviations: CAP = community-acquired pneumonia; CI = confidence interval; NB/NI = nonbacteremic/noninvasive; IPD = invasive pneumococcal disease; VE = vaccine efficacy; VT = vaccine-type.|
|Primary endpoint: First case of confirmed VT pneumococcal CAP||139||49||90||45.6||(21.8, 62.5)|
|Secondary endpoint: First episode of confirmed NB/NI VT pneumococcal CAP||93||33||60||45||(14.2, 65.3)|
|Secondary endpoint: First episode of VT-IPD||35||7||28||75||(41.1, 90.9)|
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