Vaccine Information: ProQuad (Page 4 of 6)

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Immune Globulins and Transfusions

Immune globulins (IG) administered concomitantly with ProQuad contain antibodies that may interfere with vaccine virus replication and decrease the expected immune response. Vaccination should be deferred for at least 3 months following blood or plasma transfusions, or administration of IG.

The appropriate suggested interval between transfusion or IG administration and vaccination will vary with the type of transfusion or indication for, and dose of, IG (e.g. , 5 months for Varicella Zoster Immune Globulin [VZIG]) {2}. Following administration of ProQuad, any IG including VZIG should not be given for 1 month thereafter unless its use outweighs the benefits of vaccination {2}. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.9).]

7.2 Salicylates

Reye syndrome has been reported following the use of salicylates during wild-type varicella infection. Vaccine recipients should avoid use of salicylates for 6 weeks after vaccination with ProQuad. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.10) and Patient Counseling Information (17).]

7.3 Corticosteroids and Immunosuppressive Drugs

ProQuad may be used in individuals who are receiving topical corticosteroids or low-dose corticosteroids for asthma prophylaxis or replacement therapy, e.g. , for Addison’s disease. ProQuad should not be given to individuals receiving immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs. Vaccination with a live, attenuated vaccine, such as varicella or measles, can result in a more extensive vaccine-associated rash or disseminated disease in individuals on immunosuppressive drugs [see Contraindications (4.2)].

7.4 Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

Live, attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccines given individually may result in a temporary depression of tuberculin skin sensitivity. Therefore, if a tuberculin test is to be done, it should be administered either any time before, simultaneously with, or at least 4 to 6 weeks after ProQuad.

7.5 Use with Other Vaccines

At least 1 month should elapse between a dose of a measles-containing vaccine such as M-M-R II and a dose of ProQuad, and at least 3 months should elapse between administration of 2 doses of ProQuad or varicella-containing vaccines.

ProQuad may be administered concomitantly with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate (meningococcal protein conjugate) and hepatitis B (recombinant). Additionally, ProQuad may be administered concomitantly with pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine, and/or hepatitis A (inactivated) vaccines. [See Clinical Studies (14).]

There are no data regarding the administration of ProQuad with inactivated poliovirus vaccine or with other live virus vaccines.

There are insufficient data to support concomitant vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed. [See Clinical Studies (14).]

Children under treatment for tuberculosis have not experienced exacerbation of the disease when vaccinated with live measles virus vaccine; no studies have been reported to date of the effect of measles virus vaccines on children with untreated tuberculosis.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

ProQuad vaccine contains live attenuated measles, mumps, rubella and varicella viruses. The vaccine is contraindicated for use in pregnant women because infection during pregnancy with the wild-type viruses is associated with maternal and fetal adverse outcomes.

For women who are inadvertently vaccinated when pregnant or who become pregnant within 3 months of administration of ProQuad, the healthcare provider should be aware of the following: (1) Reports have indicated that contracting wild-type measles during pregnancy enhances fetal risk. Increased rates of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, congenital defects, and prematurity have been observed subsequent to infection with wild-type measles during pregnancy. There are no adequate studies of the attenuated (vaccine) strain of measles virus in pregnancy; (2) Mumps infection during the first trimester of pregnancy may increase the rate of spontaneous abortion. Although mumps vaccine virus has been shown to infect the placenta and fetus, there is no evidence that it causes congenital malformations in humans {7}; (3) In a 10-year survey involving over 700 pregnant women who received rubella vaccine within 3 months before or after conception (of whom 189 received the Wistar RA 27/3 strain), none of the newborns had abnormalities compatible with congenital rubella syndrome {8}; and (4) Wild-type varicella, if acquired during pregnancy, can sometimes cause congenital varicella syndrome.

Available data on inadvertent administration of ProQuad to pregnant women are insufficient to inform vaccine-associated risks in pregnancy.

There are no relevant animal data.

All pregnancies have a risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the US general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4%, and 15% to 20%, respectively {9,10}.

Data

Human Data

In a 10-year CDC survey involving over 700 pregnant women who received rubella vaccine within 3 months before or after conception (of whom 189 received the Wistar RA 27/3 strain), none of the newborns had abnormalities compatible with congenital rubella syndrome {8}.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

It is not known whether varicella, measles, or mumps vaccine virus is excreted in human milk. Studies have shown that lactating postpartum women vaccinated with live rubella vaccine may secrete the virus in breast milk and transmit it to breastfed infants. {11,12} [See Warnings and Precautions (5.8).]

The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for ProQuad, and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from ProQuad or from the underlying maternal condition. For preventive vaccines, the underlying maternal condition is susceptibility to disease prevented by the vaccine.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Do not administer ProQuad to infants younger than 12 months of age or to children 13 years and older. Safety and effectiveness of ProQuad in infants younger than 12 months of age and in children 13 years and older have not been studied. ProQuad is not approved for use in persons in these age groups. [See Adverse Reactions (6) and Clinical Studies (14).]

8.5 Geriatric Use

ProQuad is not indicated for use in the geriatric population (≥age 65).

11 DESCRIPTION

ProQuad (Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Virus Vaccine Live) is a combined, attenuated, live virus vaccine containing measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella viruses. ProQuad is a sterile lyophilized preparation of (1) the components of M-M-R II (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live): Measles Virus Vaccine Live, a more attenuated line of measles virus, derived from Enders’ attenuated Edmonston strain and propagated in chick embryo cell culture; Mumps Virus Vaccine Live, the Jeryl Lynn™ (B level) strain of mumps virus propagated in chick embryo cell culture; Rubella Virus Vaccine Live, the Wistar RA 27/3 strain of live attenuated rubella virus propagated in WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts; and (2) Varicella Virus Vaccine Live (Oka/Merck), the Oka/Merck strain of varicella-zoster virus propagated in MRC-5 cells. The cells, virus pools, bovine serum, and recombinant human albumin used in manufacturing are all tested to provide assurance that the final product is free of potential adventitious agents.

ProQuad, when reconstituted as directed, is a sterile suspension for subcutaneous administration. Each 0.5-mL dose contains not less than 3.00 log10 TCID50 of measles virus; 4.30 log10 TCID50 of mumps virus; 3.00 log10 TCID50 of rubella virus; and a minimum of 3.99 log10 PFU of Oka/Merck varicella virus.

Each 0.5-mL dose of the vaccine contains no more than 21 mg of sucrose, 11 mg of hydrolyzed gelatin, 2.4 mg of sodium chloride, 1.8 mg of sorbitol, 0.40 mg of monosodium L-glutamate, 0.34 mg of sodium phosphate dibasic, 0.31 mg of recombinant human albumin, 0.17 mg of sodium bicarbonate, 72 mcg of potassium phosphate monobasic, 60 mcg of potassium chloride; 36 mcg of potassium phosphate dibasic; residual components of MRC-5 cells including DNA and protein; <16 mcg of neomycin, bovine calf serum (0.5 mcg), and other buffer and media ingredients. The product contains no preservative.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

ProQuad has been shown to induce measles-, mumps-, rubella-, and varicella-specific immunity, which is thought to be the mechanism by which it protects against these four childhood diseases.

The efficacy of ProQuad was established through the use of immunological correlates for protection against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella. Results from efficacy studies or field effectiveness studies that were previously conducted for the component vaccines were used to define levels of serum antibodies that correlated with protection against measles, mumps, and rubella. Also, in previous studies with varicella vaccine, antibody responses against varicella virus ≥5 gpELISA units/mL in a glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA) (not commercially available) similarly correlated with long-term protection. In these efficacy studies, the clinical endpoint for measles and mumps was a clinical diagnosis of either disease confirmed by a 4-fold or greater rise in serum antibody titers between either postvaccination or acute and convalescent titers; for rubella, a 4-fold or greater rise in antibody titers with or without clinical symptoms of rubella; and for varicella, varicella-like rash that occurred >42 days postvaccination and for which varicella was not excluded by either viral cultures of the lesion or serological tests. Specific laboratory evidence of varicella either by serology or culture was not required to confirm the diagnosis of varicella. Clinical studies with a single dose of ProQuad have shown that vaccination elicited rates of antibody responses against measles, mumps, and rubella that were similar to those observed after vaccination with a single dose of M-M-R II [see Clinical Studies (14)] and seroresponse rates for varicella virus were similar to those observed after vaccination with a single dose of VARIVAX [see Clinical Studies (14)]. The duration of protection from measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella infections after vaccination with ProQuad is unknown.

12.6 Persistence of Antibody Responses after Vaccination

The persistence of antibody at 1 year after vaccination was evaluated in a subset of 2107 children enrolled in the clinical trials. Antibody was detected in 98.9% (1722/1741) for measles, 96.7% (1676/1733) for mumps, 99.6% (1796/1804) for rubella, and 97.5% (1512/1550) for varicella (≥5 gpELISA units/mL) of vaccinees following a single dose of ProQuad.

Experience with M-M-R II demonstrates that antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella viruses are still detectable in most individuals 11 to 13 years after primary vaccination {13}. Varicella antibodies were present for up to ten years postvaccination in most of the individuals tested who received 1 dose of VARIVAX.

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